Siege Engines

Ultimate Combat
A classic trope of fantasy warfare is the storming of a castle or other large fortification. Whether the PCs are leading a brave and desperate defense of a lonely bastion against an overwhelming army of darkness, or overseeing the fight to overthrow an evil ruler and cast down his mighty fortress, a fight along the battlements can fire the imagination of a jaded player who has grown bored with one-on-one hacking. While historical sieges often depended more on disease and starvation for victory than anything else, the thrill for players is likely to come more from bombardment and assault with an array of siege engines, and countering the massive engines of their enemies with their own.

The basic rules for siege engines are found here. The following new options for siege engines both supplement and expand upon those rules. If the rules ever appear to be in conflict, use the rules below.

Siege Engine Rules

All siege engines are at least size Large devices and often much larger. Unless stated otherwise in an individual siege engine description, all siege engines use the following rules.
Proficiency
Siege engines are exotic weapons. A creature with the Siege Engineer feat is proficient with all siege engines, including siege firearms. A creature that is proficient in firearms is also proficient in siege firearms, but not other siege engines.
Crew

The sheer size of a siege engine often necessitates a crew for its use. One person of that crew is the crew leader. Usually the crew leader targets or controls the movement of a siege engine; sometimes the crew leader does both. Often the crew leader is required to take actions and make specific checks in order for a siege engine to function. The rest of the crew members are required to spend actions and make checks in order for a siege engine to function.

The number of members in a crew assumes Medium creatures. A ram can be crewed by Small creatures, but it takes double the crew to do the same job. If Large or larger creatures serve as crew members, each Large creature counts as four crew members, a Huge creature counts as eight Medium creatures, a colossal creature counts as 16 Medium creatures, and a gargantuan creature counts as 20 Medium creatures.

Magical and Masterwork Siege Engines
Siege engines can be masterwork, increasing their Craft DC by 5 and costing an additional 300 gp. A masterwork siege engine can be enchanted at twice the cost for a normal magical weapon. The enhancement bonus of a siege engine applies on attack rolls and targeting checks (in the case of indirect ranged siege engines), and in the case of magical spell engines, the enhancement bonus also applies on damage rolls.
Defense and Hit Points
All siege engines are objects. A siege engine has a Dexterity of 0 (-5 penalty) and a further penalty based on its size. Each type of siege engine has its own hardness and hit points. Siege engines can be armored—treat the siege engine as a creature of its size to determine the cost of the armor. Masterwork siege engine armor can be enchanted for twice the normal cost to enchant armor. Armored siege engines have an AC equal to that normally granted by the specific armor (shields have no effect on a siege engine), a hardness and hit points equal to that of the armor, and bonus hit points equal to the armor bonus x 5.
Moving Siege Engines

Siege engines have a speed. The speed of a siege engine is the distance it can be moved if its full crew makes a move action to move it. Some siege engines have a speed of 0. If this is the case, the engine must be dissembled before movement is possible, or else mounted on a vehicle. Siege engines that are atop or mounted on vehicles move with those vehicles (see Vehicles).

Ranged Attacks

Unlike normal ranged weapons, siege engines do not deal half damage when attacking objects.

Critical Hits
When a direct-fire siege engine or a close assault siege engine scores a critical hit, it confirms the critical and deals critical hit damage just like any other weapon. If an indirect-fire ranged siege engine rolls a natural 20 on its targeting check, it can also score a critical hit. The crew leader must reroll the targeting check to confirm the critical. If the confirmation targeting check is successful, the attack is a critical hit, and the siege engine multiplies its damage by its critical multiplier. Unlike normal attacks, siege engines attacks can deal critical hit damage to objects. Siege engines do not gain the benefit of critical feats the crew or the crew leader may have.
Mishaps and Misfires

Rolling a natural 1 on an attack roll or a targeting check made by an indirect-fire ranged siege engine produces a mishap. Usually a mishap applies the broken condition. A non-firearm siege engine with the broken condition takes a -2 penalty on attack rolls, targeting checks, and damage rolls. It also moves at half its normal speed. If the creature that serves as crew leader has the Siege Engineer feat, that creature does not generate a mishap on a natural 1 when firing the siege engine.

Firearm siege weapons do not gain a mishap on a natural 1, but instead have a misfire value, like other firearms do. An attack roll or targeting check that falls within the misfire range causes the firearm siege engine to misfire.

A misfire always misses, and applies the broken condition to the siege engine firearm. A firearm siege weapon with the broken condition takes all of the penalties and limitations that non-firearm siege engines do, and the misfire range of the firearm siege engine is increased by 4. If the firearm siege engine already has the broken condition when it misfires, it explodes. When a firearm siege engine explodes, it deals its damage to all creatures within a blast range (those within the blast can attempt a DC 20 Reflex save for half damage). The normal misfire range of a firearm siege engine and its blast range are given in the individual firearm siege engine description. Crew leaders with the Siege Engineer feat do not lower the misfire value of firearm siege engines.

Constructing and Repairing Siege Engines

A siege engine is a complex device requiring a DC 20 Craft (siege engine) skill check to build or repair.

Disabling Siege Engines

A siege engine is considered a difficult device to disable, requiring 2d4 rounds of effort and a DC 20 Disable Device check to do so. When a siege engine is disabled, it either doesn't work or is sabotaged and stops working 1d4 minutes after use. Fixing a disabled siege engine requires a DC 20 Craft (siege engine), Disable Device, or Knowledge (engineering) check. It takes 10 minutes to fix the device, and the check can be retried if the fix fails.

Assembling Siege Engines
Table: Siege Engine Assembly
Engine Size Time Required Workers
Required
Small 1 minute 1
Medium 10 minutes 2
Large 1 hour 4
Huge 2 hours 6
Gargantuan 4 hours 8
Colossal 8 hours 12
Siege engines are broken down for transport and can be reassembled on the battlefield, requiring the time and number of workers noted below. Each assembly worker must make a DC 10 Craft (siege engine) check; if untrained, they may not take 10. Assembly can be performed with at least half the required number of workers by doubling the time required. If fewer than half are available, the weapon cannot be assembled.

Siege Engine Qualities

The following are the various entries on the equipment tables for siege engines. While ranged siege engines use most of these entries, close-assault siege engines only use some of them.

Cost

This value is the siege engine's cost in gold pieces (gp). The cost includes gear needed to work the engine as well as gear for upkeep. Typical ammunition costs and weights are given in siege weapon description.

Damage

This column gives the damage typically dealt by the engine. If the engine has a special mode of attack or damage, this space is marked by the words "see description." If the siege engine does not deal any damage, but rather is a tool for getting close to or over fortifications, this entry features a dash (—). Some ranged siege engines can be loaded with special ammunition that affects or overrides the weapon's typical damage or range.

As large and imprecise weapons, siege engines do not deal sneak attack damage or any other kind of precision damage.

Critical

The entry for this column notes how the engine is used with the rules for critical hits. Unlike normal ranged weapons, siege engines can deal critical damage to objects as well as creatures.

Range

Any attack at more than the distance listed in this entry is penalized for range. Beyond this range, the attack or targeting check takes a cumulative -2 penalty for each full range increment (or fraction thereof ) of distance to the target. Some siege engines have a minimum range for effectiveness. If that is the case, the range of this weapon is followed by a parenthetical with the minimum range, followed by the abbreviation "min."

Type

Like weapons, siege engines that deal damage are classified according to the type of damage they deal: B for bludgeoning, P for piercing, or S for slashing. Some engines deal damage of multiple types. Some special siege engines (like the firedrake and the firewyrm) deal energy damage, typically fire damage. In those cases, the type of energy damage is listed instead.

Crew

This column gives the number of creatures needed to properly use the siege engine, assuming Medium creatures. Some siege engines can be used with a smaller crew, but there are usually consequences such as slower aiming, firing, or movement.

Aim

This column gives the number of full-round actions (or move actions if the crew leader has the Master Siege Engineer feat) required to aim a siege engine. If the siege engine is being controlled by less than its normal crew complement, the number of actions it takes for the crew to aim the siege engine is doubled.

Load

This column gives the number of full-round actions (or move actions if the crew leader has the Master Siege Engineer feat) required to load a siege engine.

Speed

This is how fast the siege engine can be moved with move actions made by its entire crew.

Ranged Siege Engines

Table: Ranged Siege Engines
Direct-Fire Engines Cost Dmg Critical Range Type1 Crew Aim Load Speed
Large Siege Engines
Ballista, light 500 gp 3d8 19-20/x2 120 ft. P 1 0 2 10 ft.
Cannon 6,000 gp 6d6 x4 100 ft. B and P 2 1 3 10 ft.
Huge Siege Engines
Ballista, heavy 800 gp 4d8 19-20/x2 180 ft. P 3 2 3 0 ft.
Cannon, fiend's mouth 9,000 gp 8d6 x4 150 ft. B and P 3 1 3 0 ft.
Earthmaul 1,000 gp 6d6 B 3 3 10 ft.
Firedrake 4,000 gp 6d6 fire 3 2 5 10 ft.
Manticore’s tail 1,000 gp 3d8 19–20/×2 See text P 3 0 4 10 ft.
Gargantuan Siege Engines
Ballista, gate breaker 1,200 gp 6d8 19-20/x2 100 ft. B 5 3 5 0 ft.
Firewyrm 6,000 gp 6d6 fire 5 2 6 0 ft.
Indirect-Fire Engines Cost Dmg Critical Range Type1 Crew Aim Load Speed
Large Siege Engines
Bombard, light 6,000 gp 5d6 x4 100 ft. (50 ft. min.) B and P 2 1 3 10 ft.
Catapult, light 550 gp 4d6 x2 150 ft. (50 ft. min.) B 2 2 3 10 ft.
Trebuchet, light 800 gp 4d6 x2 200 ft. (100 ft. min.) B 3 2 3 0 ft.
Huge Siege Engines
Bombard, standard 8,000 gp 7d6 x4 150 ft. (100 ft. min.) B and P 2 1 3 0 ft.
Catapult, standard 800 gp 6d6 x2 200 ft. (100 ft. min.) B 3 2 3 0 ft.
Springal, arrow 1,000 gp 3d8 x3 100 ft. (50 ft. min.) P 3 2 3 0 ft.
Springal, rocket 6,000 gp 3d10 x4 100 ft. (50 ft. min.) fire 3 2 3 0 ft.
Trebuchet, standard 1,000 gp 6d6 x2 300 ft. (150 ft. min.) B 4 2 3 0 ft.
Gargantuan Siege Engines
Bombard, heavy 8,000 gp 9d6 x4 200 ft. (100 ft. min.) B and P 4 3 5 0 ft.
Catapult, heavy 1,000 gp 8d6 x2 300 ft. (100 ft. min.) B 4 3 3 0 ft.
Trebuchet, heavy 1,500 gp 8d6 x2 400 ft. (200 ft. min.) B 4 3 3 0 ft.
1 A weapon with two types is both types if the entry specifies "and."
Ranged siege engines assault structures and people from a distance, by propelling ammunition in some fashion. Siege engines hurl massive projectiles in one of two ways: direct fire or indirect fire. Both take a number of actions to load or aim, and the basic rules are described below.
Load Ammunition

In order for a ranged siege engine to fire, it needs to be loaded with ammunition. Loading ammunition takes a number of full-round actions depending on the siege engine (this time can be reduced to move actions if the crew leader has the Master Siege Engineer feat).

Aiming a Siege Engine

Ranged siege engines must be aimed in order to attack a desired target (in the case of direct-fire siege engines) or square (in the case of indirectfire siege engines). Aiming takes a number of full-round actions (or move actions if the crew leader has the Master Siege Engineer feat), with the number depending on the specific siege engine. Aiming a siege engine with a diminished crew doubles the amount of time it takes to aim the siege engine. Each time a new target or square is chosen as the target of a siege engine's attack, that engine must be aimed anew.

Direct-Fire Ranged Siege Engines

Direct-fire weapons launch their projectiles on a relatively flat trajectory, allowing them to more easily target creatures or pummel barriers directly in front of them.

A direct-fire weapon uses a normal attack roll, with the normal penalty for nonproficient use. In addition, a direct-fire weapon takes a -2 attack roll penalty per size category that the weapon is larger than the creature aiming it.

Creatures that have ranks in Knowledge (engineering) or use a targeting platform (see below) are not adversely affected by their size when firing direct-fire ranged siege engines.

Sheer manpower can also reduce the penalties for size. Increasing the crew of these weapons by 1 or more can reduce the attack roll penalty for creature size: as long as an extra crew member is no smaller than three size categories smaller than the direct-fire weapon, it can reduce the penalty due to the aiming creature's size by 2. For example, a Huge ballista fired by a Medium creature that is part of a crew of two (the creature aiming the ballista and someone to help position it) takes only a -2 penalty on attack rolls.

Indirect-Fire Ranged Siege Engines

Indirect-fire weapons launch projectiles in high arcs toward their targets. They typically lob heavier missiles and payloads than direct-fire weapons, but they are harder to aim accurately. Indirect weapons can bypass many forms of fortification, delivering their payloads of solid shot, scatter shot, or even disease-ridden offal to targets beyond the walls of castles. They can also be used to batter fortifications where they are most vulnerable, arcing down on towers and walls, crushing them with the weight of stone or raining down smaller projectiles on a wall's defenders.

Indirect-fire weapons use a targeting mechanic similar to that described for catapults in the Core Rulebook, hereafter referred to as an indirect attack. The following is an update to those rules.

Indirect Attack
Table: Indirect Attack Check Modifiers
Condition Modifier
No line of sight to target square -6
Successive shots (crew can see where most recent miss landed) Cumulative +2 per previous miss (maximum +10)
Successive shots (crew can't see where most recent missed
shot landed, but observer is providing feedback)
Cumulative +1 per previous miss (maximum +5)
Successive shots after a hit +10z

To fire an indirect-fire ranged siege engine, the crew leader makes a targeting check against the DC of the siege engine. This check uses his base attack bonus, his Intelligence modifier (if not trained in Knowledge [engineering]) or Knowledge (engineering) skill modifier (if trained in that skill), any penalty for not being proficient in the siege engine, and the appropriate modifiers from the table. If the check succeeds, the ammunition of the indirect attack hits the square the siege engine was aimed at, dealing the indicated damage or effect to any object or creature within the area of its attack. Creatures may get a saving throw to limit the effect of the attack; this is typically based on the type of ammunition used.

If the attack misses the intended square, roll 1d8 to determine in what direction the shot veers. A roll of 1 indicates the ammunition falls short (toward the siege engine), with rolls of 2 through 8 counting squares clockwise around the target square. Roll 1d4 for every range increment at which the attack was made (1d4 if the target square is within the engine's first range increment, 2d4 if the target square is within the second range increment, and so on). The total is the number of squares by which the attack misses, with the direction in which the squares are counted determined by the d8 roll. The ammunition deals its damage and any other effects in the square it lands on.

Special Siege Engine Ammunition

Table: Ammunition
Ammunition Cost Weight
Alchemical fire 200 gp 10 lbs.
Ballista net 75 gp 15lbs.
Blast shot 30 gp 25 lbs.
Bomb 600 gp 30 lbs.
Chain shot 50 gp 30 lbs.
Defoliant shot 300 gp 20 lbs.
Entangling bolt 50 gp 25 lbs.
Flak 500 gp 30 lbs.
Flechette bolt 30 gp 20 lbs.
Liquid ice 400 gp 20 lbs.
Plague bundle 80 gp 20 lbs.
Rockwasp bomb 2,000 gp 100 lbs.
Smoke shot 250 gp 20 lbs.
Weighted bolt 50 gp 40 lbs.

The following kinds of ammunition can be used either in select types of indirect-fire siege engines, or with cannons. The ammunition description specifies which types of siege engines use the special ammunition. The costs and weights on Table: Ammunition are for individual uses of special ammunition.

Alchemical Fire

This hard, ceramic canister of alchemist's fire can be used as ammunition in catapults and trebuchets. When it hits its target square, it deals 4d6 points of fire damage to each creature and wooden structure within 5 feet of the target space, and each creature must make a DC 20 Reflex saving throw or catch on fire (wooden objects automatically catch on fire). Every creature and wooden object within the area between 5 and 30 feet of the target space must make a DC 20 Reflex saving throw or take half the fire damage, but they do not catch on fire. On a siege engine mishap, this ammunition explodes before it is launched, dealing its damage to the siege engine and all nearby creatures and wooden objects as if one of the spaces of the siege engine (crew leader's choice) were the target square. This alchemical fire ignores the hardness of wooden objects.

Ballista Net

Dragonslayer's Handbook
Price: 75 gp
Weight: 15 lbs.

This ballista bolt is specially equipped with a net which unfurls as the bolt flies toward its target. Unlike a standard ballista bolt, a ballista net requires only a touch attack to hit. If a ballista net hits, it deals no damage, but causes the target to become entangled. An entangled creature takes a -2 penalty on attack rolls and a -4 penalty to Dexterity, can move at only half speed, and cannot charge or run.

Blast Shot

Instead of a single hard ball, this ammunition is a bundle of large pellets, balls, or pieces of scrap metal, propelled a short distance by black powder and attacking all creatures and objects within an area. Both cannons and fiend's mouth cannons can fire this kind of ammunition. When such a siege engine fires this ammunition, it hits every creature and object within a 30-foot-cone burst. The siege engine makes attack rolls against each creature and unattended object in the burst. It must miss every creature or target to misfire, and a misfire generates the normal effect. It deals its normal damage on a hit, but does not ignore the hardness of objects.

Bomb

A bomb is a metal canister filled with metal balls and black powder that can be used as ammunition in catapults and trebuchets or carried by two Medium creatures or one Large creature to its destination. A bomb either explodes on impact (if fired from a catapult or trebuchet, or within 3 rounds of a fuse being lit if carried).

When it explodes, it deals 6d6 points of piercing and bludgeoning damage to all creatures and objects within 30 feet of the target square. On a siege engine mishap, this ammunition explodes before it is launched, dealing its damage to the siege engine and all nearby creatures and wooden objects as if one of the spaces of the siege engine (crew leader's choice) were the target square. It ignores the hardness of wood and stone.

Chain Shot

This siege engine firearm ammunition can be loaded in a cannon or a fiend's mouth cannon. It is especially good at tearing through sails and dirigibles (see Vehicles), dealing double its normal damage to those forms of propulsion. When fired at a creature, on a hit, the creature must succeed at a DC 20 Fortitude saving throw or be knocked prone.

Defoliant Shot

Belzken—Hold of the Orc Hordes
Price: 300 gp
Weight: 20 lbs.

When used as ammunition in a catapult or trebuchet, this ceramic canister releases a mist of defoliant (Pathfinder RPG Ultimate Equipment 103) on impact. When it hits the target square, it deals 2d6 points of damage to any creature in that space. Plant creatures within 30 feet of the target square take an additional 4d6 points of damage. A successful DC 20 Fortitude saving throw halves this additional damage. Plant creatures within 5 feet of the target space that fail their saving throws also take 1d4 points of Strength damage and 1d4 points of Constitution damage. The defoliant also kills vegetation within 30 feet of the target square as described in Ultimate Equipment.

On a siege engine mishap, this ammunition explodes before it's launched, dealing its damage to the siege engine and all nearby plant creatures as if one of the spaces of the siege engine (crew leader's choice) were the target square.

Entangling Bolt

Belzken—Hold of the Orc Hordes
Price: 50 gp
Weight: 25 lbs.

When launched from a ballista, this specialized bolt unfurls into a large net. An attack with entangling ammunition is a ranged touch attack, but it's only effective within one range increment. If it hits, the target is entangled, but the attack deals no damage.

An entangled creature can escape with a successful DC 20 Escape Artist check (a full-round action). The net has 5 hit points and can be burst with a successful DC 25 Strength check (also a full-round action). Entangling ammunition is useful only against creatures within one size category of the firing ballista.

Flak

Dragonslayer's Handbook
Price: 500 gp
Weight: 30 lbs.

Flak ammunition is a type of short-fused bomb, specifically designed to explode in midair. Flak ammunition is packed with steel balls and black powder, and may be fired from a bombard or catapult. When flak explodes, it deals 4d6 points of piercing and bludgeoning damage to all creatures and objects within 40 feet of the target square. A flak bomb must reach an altitude of at least 50 feet to function properly. If flak ammunition impacts anything before it reaches this altitude, the bomb deals 1d6 points of bludgeoning damage and fails to explode.

Flechette Bolt

Dragonslayer's Handbook
Price: 30 gp
Weight: 20 lbs.

This ballista bolt consists of dozens of small steel darts, called flechettes, which break away after the bolt is released. If the bolt impacts anything before it reaches a distance of 30 feet, it deals 1d8 points of damage. Between 30 and 60 feet away, the flechettes deploy, dealing piercing damage to every creature and object within a 30-foot-cone burst. After 60 feet, the flechettes lose momentum and fall harmlessly to the ground. Separate attack rolls must be made against each target hit by the burst. Light ballista flechettes deal 2d8 points of damage, while heavy ballista flechettes deal 3d8 points. Additionally, any winged creature hit by flechettes has several holes punched in its wings, and has its fly speed reduced by 10 feet. The creature takes a -4 penalty on Fly checks until the damage is healed.

Liquid Ice

This hard, ceramic canister filled with alchemical liquid ice can be used as ammunition in catapults and trebuchets. When it hits its target square, it deals 4d6 points of cold damage to each creature within 5 feet of the targeting space, and each creature must make a DC 20 Fortitude save or become entangled for 1 round. Every creature within the area between 5 and 30 feet of the target space must make a DC 20 Fortitude saving throw or take half damage. On a siege engine mishap, this ammunition explodes before it is launched, dealing its damage to all nearby creatures as if one of the spaces of the siege engine (crew leader's choice) were the target square.

Plague Bundle

This hard, ceramic canister is filled with a noxious mass of diseased carrion and offal that can be used as ammunition for a catapult or a trebuchet. It deals only half damage, but every creature hit by it is exposed to filth fever. A GM might allow a plague bundle to inflict other diseases.

Rockwasp Bomb

Belzken—Hold of the Orc Hordes
Price: 2,000 gp
Weight: 100 lbs.

Usable in catapults and trebuchets, this ammunition consists of a wooden crate packed with wax globes, from which a faint buzzing sound emanates. Visible as a dark shape at the center of each globe is a rat-sized hornet known as a rockwasp. The alchemical wax keeps the wasps immobilized, while tiny air holes allow them to breath. This ammunition deals only half damage, but releases a wasp swarm—two wasp swarms if used for a heavy catapult or heavy trebuchet. The wasps attack for 1 minute before dispersing. On a siege engine mishap, the wasps escape before the ammunition is launched.

Smoke Shot

This hard ceramic sphere contains two alchemical substances separated by a thin barrier, much like a smoke pellet in larger form. When it hits the targeting space, it deals 2d6 points of damage to any creature in that space, and the substances mingle and then create an area of foul but harmless yellow smoke radiating 30 feet from the target square. Treat the effect as a fog cloud spell. On a siege engine mishap, the ammunition explodes before it is launched. Its effect is centered on one of the spaces of the siege engine (crew leader's choice).

Weighted Bolt

Dragonslayer's Handbook
Price: 50 gp
Weight: 40 lbs.

This barbed ballista bolt is equipped with a heavy weight at the end of a long chain. The bolt's extra weight makes the bolt harder to fire accurately, and imposes a -2 penalty on attack rolls. In addition to the normal damage dealt by a ballista bolt of its size, on a successful hit the weighted bolt lodges itself into the target's body, leaving the weighted chain hanging loosely, imparting a -5 penalty on all Fly checks made by the target. These penalties stack if a target is hit with multiple weighted bolts. A weighted bolt can be removed with a successful DC 25 Heal check or a DC 20 Strength check.

Close Assault Siege Engines

Table: Close Siege Engines
Close Assault Engines Cost Dmg Critical Type Crew Speed
Bridge, assault
Large 1 gp
Huge10 gp
Gargantuan50 gp
Colossal250 gp
Corvus100 gp1Special
Crushing wheel 500 gp 4d6 B 4 15 ft.
Gallery
Large250 gp3 15 ft.
Huge500 gp615 ft.
Gargantuan1000 gp915 ft.
Colossal2000 gp1815 ft.
Harvester 800 gp 2d8 x4 S 4 15 ft.
Ladder, escalade
Large5 gp2as crew speed
Huge10 gp4as crew speed
Gargantuan50 gp6 as crew speed
Colossal250 gp8as crew speed
Ram
Large 500 gp2d6x3B515 ft.
Huge1000 gp3d6x3B1015 ft.
Gargantuan2000 gp6d6x3B2015 ft.
Colossal5000 gp10d6x3B4015 ft.
Siege tower
Large1000 gp615 ft.
Huge2000 gp1215 ft.
Gargantuan5000 gp2415 ft.
Colossal10,000 gp4815 ft

While most siege engines attack at range, some are used up close to directly undermine defenses, batter through them, or otherwise bypass them. Some close assault weapons are not even weapons at all, but instead provide means for assault forces to protect themselves or circumvent fortifications without destroying them.

Bridge, Assault

Table: Bridges and Escalade Ladders
Size Width Length/
Height
Large 5 ft. 20 ft.
Huge 5 ft. 30 ft.
Gargantuan 10 ft. 40 ft.
Colossal 10 ft. 60 ft.

An assault bridge is used to span a ditch, moat, or other gap. Raising an assault bridge requires one full-round action per 5 feet of length; up to four creatures may cooperate to raise a bridge. The time required is doubled for each size category that the bridge is larger than the creatures raising it. Large assault bridges have 40 hit points, Huge ones have 60 hit points, Gargantuan ones have 160 hit points, and Colossal ones have 240 hit points.

Corvus

A corvus is a boarding device that features a hinged counterweight system for mounting a bridge vertically on a siege tower or a vehicle, with a hooked end to grab onto a target vehicle or structure. A corvus is usually 10 feet wide and 15 feet long. It has a hardness of 5 and 10 hit points per square. Using a corvus requires a DC 10 Profession (siege engineer) check as a full-round action; if the check fails, the corvus fails to catch on the target and must be reset (a full-round action). A corvus mounted on a vehicle can target another moving vehicle (see Vehicles). Doing so requires an opposed driving check to get the corvus into the correct position, which is within the length of the corvus and adjacent to the other vehicle.

Once a corvus is attached, it takes a Strength check as a full-round action to dislodge the corvus. Alternatively, if the corvus is attached to a vehicle, either vehicle driver can make a driving check as a standard action to dislodge the corvus (a check that succeeds by 5 or more destroys the corvus). The base DC for either of these checks is 15, and the DC increases by 5 for every Small or Medium creature currently standing on the corvus. If a corvus is disengaged while creatures are standing on it, those creatures must make a DC 15 Reflex saving throw or fall. Succeeding at . the saving throw allows them to move to the nearest area of safe ground, but such movement provokes attacks of opportunity. A corvus cannot be armored.

Gallery

A mobile temporary defense, a gallery is similar to a building made of hide or wood. Most are of flimsy construction, but rare examples are more stoutly built (use the rules for giving siege engines armor, and adjust AC, hardness, and hit points accordingly). Galleries are almost always a single section of movable "wall" plus another section that acts as the "roof." (Galleries made to house battering rams are an exception, and typically have two joined wall sections and roof sections.) Because a gallery is partially open, it does not provide the same cover as a normal building: a creature inside a gallery gains cover if it is the same size as the gallery, improved cover if it is one size smaller, and total cover if it is two or more sizes smaller. Galleries are sized like creatures—a Larger gallery protects the same space as a Large creature, and so on.

Wooden galleries can be moved on rollers at a speed of 10 feet with their full crew, or 5 feet with at least half the required crew. Galleries have a base speed of 15 feet (or 10 feet if protected with medium or heavy armor).

Galleries have a hardness of 5, and hit points based on their size. A Large gallery has 30 hit points, a Huge one has 120 hit points, a Gargantuan one has 320 hit points, and a colossal one has 625 hit points.

Ladder, Escalade

Escalade ladders have spiked bases for stability, and the upper 5 feet are metal-shod, with hardness 10 and 20 hit points. The remainder of the ladder is wooden and has hardness 5 and hit points based on its size. Large escalade ladders have 20 hit points, Huge ones have 30 hit points, Gargantuan ones have 80 hit points, and Colossal ones have 120 hit points. Escalade ladders cannot be armored.

Rams

The most basic close assault weapons are ironshod logs carried by one or more creatures to combine their strength. A ram can be used to deal damage or to make a Strength check against the target's break DC.

Ramming Charge

Rams require momentum to be effective. All creatures using the ram must use the charge action to gain its full effect. Creatures not wishing to charge may make a ram attack as a full-round action, taking a -4 penalty on attack and damage rolls and Strength checks with the ram.

Breaking

The crew leader makes a Strength check with a +2 bonus, adding +2 for each member of the crew (or equivalent number of larger creatures) assisting. The ram also provides a +4 bonus per size category above Medium.

Damage

The crew leader makes an attack roll with a -4 nonproficiency penalty. A hit deals the listed damage, plus the Strength modifiers of the crew leader and all members of the crew, regardless of their size.

Improvised Ram

Any tree, log, or timber can be used as a ram with a -4 penalty on attack and damage rolls and Strength checks.

Pick

A ram with a pick head grants a +2 circumstance bonus on Strength checks and attack and damage rolls made against stone structures.

Screw

A ram with a screw head grants a +2 circumstance bonus on Strength checks and attack and damage rolls made against earthen structures.

Gallery Ram

This is a ram suspended from chains or ropes within a gallery. A gallery ram does not require a charge action for full momentum. In addition, adding tethers to the back end of the ram allows four additional crew members to assist in using the ram.

Hit Points

Rams have a hardness of 5 and hit points based on their size. A Large ram has 30 hit points, a Huge one has 120 hit points, a Gargantuan one has 320 hit points, and a Colossal one has 625 hit points. Improvised rams have half the normal hit points.

Siege Tower

Table: Siege Tower Complement
Size Soldiers
Large
5
Huge
20
Gargantuan
50
Colossal
200

A wooden gallery of stout construction, a siege tower consists of a tall protective shell with a roof section. The lower story of the tower contains the crew members who propel the tower, and provides total cover to those within. A siege tower with the broken condition moves at half speed. If a siege tower is destroyed, the entire tower collapses. Treat this as a cave-in.

The upper section of a siege tower provides improved cover for a number of soldiers (see below) and may have pierced walls allowing creatures to fire ranged weapons out the sides. The roof section may have a battlement and may mount a siege engine of the siege tower's size or smaller and a corvus. Siege towers have a base speed of 15 (or 10 feet if protected with medium or heavy armor).

Siege towers have a hardness of 5, and hit points based on their size. A Large siege tower has 60 hit points, a Huge one has 240 hit points, a Gargantuan one has 640 hit points, and a Colossal one has 1,250 hit points.

Structure Hardness and Hit Points

Huge doors increase the break DC by 5, Colossal doors increase the DC by 10, and Gargantuan doors increase the DC by 15. Arcane lock increases the DC by 10.

While armies can use siege weapons against troops, usually the goal of a siege engine is to demoralize foes and pound their structures to rubble. The following rules give the statistics for various buildings and barriers that are often the targets of siege engine attacks. They are split up into three different categories: buildings, gates, and walls.

When any of these structures gain the broken condition, their hardness is halved, along with any other effects of the broken condition.

Buildings
Table: Buildings
Material Hardness Hit Points
Large Huge Colossal Gargantuan
Wood
5
120
270
960
3,240
Stone
8
200
450
1,600
5400
Iron or steel
10
400
900
3,200
10,800
Adamantine
20
560
1,260
4,480
15,120

Buildings are sizable structures with many hit points and very poor ACs (a Large building is AC 4, a Huge building is AC 3, and a Gargantuan or larger building is AC 0). When a building is reduced to half its hit points, it is broken—it still stands, but only partially. It can be easily entered, and for all intents and purposes it has been breached. Reducing a building to 0 hit points completely destroys that building. Creatures inside the building suffer the effects of a cave-in.

All these building statistics assume that the structure's inside is somewhat hollow but sturdily built, with enough space for its occupants to walk around inside. Flimsy buildings have half the hit points. Buildings can be magically treated, like dungeon walls and doors can. Doing so doubles their hardness and hit points. Magically treating a building costs 5,000 gp for a Large building, 10,000 gp for a Huge building, 20,000 gp for a Gargantuan building, and 40,000 gp for a Colossal building. A spellcaster with the Craft Magic Arms and Armor feat can magically treat buildings.

For larger buildings, put together multiple buildings of these sizes and add the hit points together.

Gates
Table: Gates
Material Break
DC1
Hardness Hit Points
Large Huge Colossal Gargantuan
Wood
35
5
60
135
240
540
Stone
38
8
100
225
400
900
Iron or steel
24
10
200
500
800
1,800
Adamantine
48
20
280
630
1,120
2,520
1 The DC assumes the gate is size Large and is barred and locked.

Gates serve as the entrances and exits to fortified structures, and are typically the weakest spots in any fortification's defenses. Gates are at least Large, but can be as large as Colossal. It typically takes three full-round actions to open or close a Large gate (up to three creatures can work together to close a Large gate as a full-round action), and larger gates typically take at least a minute to close or open. Gates have ACs based on their size (a Large gate is AC 4, a Huge gate is AC 3, and a Gargantuan or larger gate is AC 0).

Gates can be magically treated. Doing so doubles the hardness and hit points. Magically treating a gate costs 2,000 gp for a Large gate, 4,000 gp for a Huge gate, 8,000 gp for a Gargantuan gate, and 16,000 gp for a Colossal gate. A spellcaster with the Craft Magic Arms and Armor feat can magically treat gates.

Gates can be attacked and damaged, or they can become broken (as the condition) with a successful Strength check, usually as a result of ramming. When a gate gains the broken condition, it is effectively breached, and can be moved through as if it were an opening one size smaller.

Walls
Table: Walls
Material Hardness Hit Points per
5-foot Square
Wood
5
30
Stone
8
45
Iron or steel
10
90
Adamantine
20
120

The walls that guard castles and cities are sturdy fortifications, usually constructed in a series of 5-foot squares. A square of wall has an AC of 5, and hardness and hit points equal to its type.

Squares of walls can be magically treated. Doing so doubles the hardness and hit points. Magically treating wall squares costs 500 gp per wall square. A spellcaster with the Craft Magic Arms and Armor feat can magically treat walls.

When a wall gains the broken condition, its hardness is halved, but the wall is not breached. Only destroying a section of wall allows it to become breached. When a square of wall is breached, any sections directly above it fall onto the missing section of walls. Doing this reduces the falling wall section to half its current hit point total -1, which applies the broken condition to that square of wall.