Firearms

Ultimate Combat
Guns are not strangers to fantasy. The earliest authors of fantasy and weird fiction often included guns in their stories. Heroes like Burroughs's John Carter or Howard's Solomon Kane carried pistols alongside their swords, and it's hard to imagine a pirate ship without cannons blazing.

These authors likely included guns because they are exciting, but also because the guns they chose were primitive ones— relatively unpredictable weapons, prone to misfire and malfunction. This made firearms excellent storytelling devices. Such weapons could cause hero or villain to falter or triumph, changing the action within the tale in a flash or a fizzle. Still, a firearm remains an ominous and terrible weapon in the hands of a skilled gunman.

This section presents an anachronistic collection of hand-held black powder weapons. Most of them are singleshot muzzle-loaders with highly inefficient triggering mechanisms—traditional sword and sorcery firearms. More advanced firearms are also presented for those brave enough to mix their fantasy with a technology much closer to that of the Old West than the slow and unstable weapons that gave musketeers their name. If you are interested in letting such weapons in your game, do so with the following warning: Advanced guns can substantially change the assumptions of your game world, in the same way that they changed the face of warfare in the real world. If you like your fantasy to be of the more traditional variety, stand clear. Or, better yet, run for cover.

Firearms in Your Campaign

Firearms and gunslingers are not for every campaign, and even if you are excited about introducing firearms into your campaign, you should still make a decision about how commonplace they are. The following are broad categories of firearm rarity and the rules that govern them. Pathfinder's world of Golarion uses the rules for emerging guns, which is also the default category of gun rarity detailed in this Pathfinder RPG supplement.

No Guns

If you do not want guns in your campaign, simply don't allow the rules that follow. The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game plays perfectly well without them.

Very Rare Guns

Early firearms are rare; advanced firearms, the gunslinger class, the Amateur Gunslinger feat, and archetypes that use the firearm rules do not exist in this type of campaign. Firearms are treated more like magic items—things of wonder and mystery—rather than like things that are mass-produced. Few know the strange secrets of firearm creation. Only NPCs can take the Gunsmithing feat.

Emerging Guns

Firearms become more common. They are mass-produced by small guilds, lone gunsmiths, dwarven clans, or maybe even a nation or two—the secret is slipping out, and the occasional rare adventurer uses guns. The baseline gunslinger rules and the prices for ammunition given in this chapter are for this type of campaign. Early firearms are available, but are relatively rare. Adventurers who want to use guns must take the Craft Firearms feat just to make them feasible weapons. Advanced firearms may exist, but only as rare and wondrous items— the stuff of high-level treasure troves.

Commonplace Guns

While still expensive and tricky to wield, early firearms are readily available. Instead of requiring the Exotic Weapon Proficiency feat, all firearms are martial weapons. Early firearms and their ammunition cost 25% of the amounts listed in this book, but advanced firearms and their ammunition are still rare and cost the full price to purchase or craft.

Guns Everywhere

Guns are commonplace. Early firearms are seen as antiques, and advanced firearms are widespread. Firearms are simple weapons, and early firearms, advanced guns, and their ammunition are bought or crafted for 10% of the cost listed in this chapter. The gunslinger loses the gunsmith class feature and instead gains the gun training class feature at 1st level.

Firearm Rules

Firearms work differently from other ranged projectile weapons—they instead use the following rules.

Firearm Proficiency

The Exotic Weapon Proficiency (firearms) feat allows you to use all firearms without penalty. A nonproficient character takes the standard -4 penalty on attack rolls with firearms, and a nonproficient character who loads a firearm increases all misfire values by 4 for the shots he loads.

Even though the Exotic Weapon Proficiency (firearms) feat grants you proficiency with all firearms, anytime you take a feat that modifies a single type of weapon (such as Weapon Focus or Rapid Reload), you must still pick one specific type of firearm (such as musket, axe musket, blunderbuss, pistol, or double pistol) for that feat to affect.

All firearms are part of the same weapon group for the purposes of the fighter's weapon training class feature.

Capacity

A firearm's capacity is the number of shots it can hold at one time. When making a full-attack action, you may fire a firearm as many times in a round as you have attacks, up to this limit, unless you can reload the weapon as a swift or free action while making a fullattack action. In the case of early firearms, capacity often indicates the number of barrels a firearm has. In the case of advanced firearms, it typically indicates the number of chambers the weapon has.

Range and Penetration

Armor, whether manufactured or natural, provides little protection against the force of a bullet at short range.

Early Firearms

When firing an early firearm, the attack resolves against the target's touch AC when the target is within the first range increment of the weapon, but this type of attack is not considered a touch attack for the purposes of feats and abilities such as Deadly Aim. At higher range increments, the attack resolves normally, including taking the normal cumulative -2 penalty for each full range increment. Unlike other projectile weapons, early firearms have a maximum range of five range increments.

Advanced Firearms

Advanced firearms resolve their attacks against touch AC when the target is within the first five range increments, but this type of attack is not considered a touch attack for the purposes of feats such as Deadly Aim. At higher range increments, the attack resolves normally, including taking the normal cumulative -2 penalty for each full-range increment. Advanced firearms have a maximum range of 10 range increments.

Loading a Firearm

You need at least one hand free to load one-handed and two-handed firearms. In the case of two-handed firearms, you hold the weapon in one hand and load it with the other—you only need to hold it in two hands to aim and shoot the firearm. Loading siege firearms requires both hands, and one hand usually manipulates a large ramrod (which can be wielded as a club in combat).

The Rapid Reload feat reduces the time required to load one-handed and two-handed firearms, but this feat does not reduce the time it takes to load siege firearms. Loading any firearm provokes attacks of opportunity. Other rules for loading a firearm depend on whether the firearm is an early firearm or an advanced firearm.

Early Firearms

Early firearms are muzzle-loaded, requiring bullets or pellets and black powder to be rammed down the muzzle. If an early firearm has multiple barrels, each barrel must be loaded separately. It is a standard action to load each barrel of a one-handed early firearm and a full-round action to load each barrel of a two-handed early firearm. It takes three full-round actions by one person to load a siege firearm. This can be reduced to two full-round actions if more than one person is loading the cannon.

Advanced Firearms

Advanced firearms are chamber-loaded. It is a move action to load a one-handed or twohanded advanced firearm to its full capacity.

Misfires

If the natural result of your attack roll falls within a firearm's misfire value, that shot misses, even if you would have otherwise hit the target. When a firearm misfires, it gains the broken condition. While it has the broken condition, it suffers the normal disadvantages that broken weapons do, and its misfire value increases by 4 unless the wielder has gun training in the particular type of firearm (see the gunslinger class). In that case, the misfire value increases by 2 instead of 4.

Early Firearms

If an early firearm with the broken condition misfires again, it explodes. When a nonmagical firearm explodes, the weapon is destroyed. Magical firearms are wrecked, which means they can't fire until they are fully restored (which requires either the make whole spell or the Gunsmithing feat). When a gun explodes, pick one corner of your square—the explosion creates a burst from that point of origin. Each firearm has a burst size noted in parentheses after its misfire value. Any creature within this burst (including the firearm's wielder) takes damage as if it had been hit by the weapon—a DC 12 Reflex save halves this damage.

Advanced Firearms

Advanced firearms can misfire, but when they do, they only gain the broken condition. A further misfire does not cause advanced firearms to explode.

Ammunition

Firearm ammunition takes two forms: either black powder and shot (either bullets or pellets) or cartridges. Unlike other types of ammunition, firearm ammunition is destroyed when it is used, and has no chance of being retrieved on a miss. No part of a cartridge can be reused to create new cartridges. Firearm ammunition cannot be treated with poison, unless you are using a pitted bullet.

Concealing Firearms

Like light weapons and hand crossbows, one-handed firearms are easy to conceal on your person. Some smaller firearms (like the coat pistol) can grant bonuses to conceal a weapon on your person.

Inappropriately Sized Firearms

You cannot make optimum use of a firearm that is not properly sized for you. A cumulative -2 penalty applies on attack rolls for each size category of difference between your size and the size of the firearm. If you are not proficient with the firearm, a -4 nonproficiency penalty also applies. The size of a firearm never affects how many hands you need to use to shoot it, the exception being siege firearms and Large or larger creatures. In most cases, a Large or larger creature can use a siege firearm as a two-handed firearm, but the creature takes a -4 penalty for using it this way because of its awkwardness.

Bucklers

You can use a one-handed or two-handed firearm without penalty while carrying a buckler.

Fire while Prone

Firearms, like crossbows, can be fired while their wielders are prone.

Firearms, Black Powder, and Water

Black powder becomes useless when exposed to water, but powder horns and cartridges protect black powder from exposure. You cannot normally load an early firearm underwater or fire any firearm underwater without magical aid.

Deflecting and Snatching Bullets

The Deflect Arrows feat and the Snatch Arrows feat can be used to deflect bullets, but not pellets shot from a scatter weapon. Neither of these feats can be used to deflect siege firearm attacks.

Firearm Descriptions

There are two general categories of firearms: early and advanced. Firearms are further divided into one-handed, twohanded, and siege firearms. As the category's name implies, one-handed firearms need only one hand to wield and shoot. Two-handed firearms work best when you use twohands while shooting them. Two-handed firearms can be shot with one hand at a -4 penalty on the attack roll. Siege weapons are typically mounted on some sort of platform, movable or otherwise, and have greater power but a much slower rate of fire—they're detailed in their own section.

Scatter Weapon Quality

A weapon with the scatter weapon quality can shoot two different types of ammunition. It can fire normal bullets that target one creature, or it can make a scattering shot, attacking all creatures within a cone. Cannons with the scatter weapon quality only fire grapeshot, unless their descriptions state otherwise. When a scatter weapon attacks all creatures within a cone, it makes a separate attack roll against each creature within the cone. Each attack roll takes a -2 penalty, and its attack damage cannot be modified by precision damage or damage-increasing feats such as Vital Strike. Effects that grant concealment, such as fog or smoke, or the blur, invisibility, or mirror image spells, do not foil a scatter attack. If any of the attack rolls threaten a critical, confirm the critical for that attack roll alone. A firearm that makes a scatter shot misfires only if all of the attack rolls made misfire. If a scatter weapon explodes on a misfire, it deals triple its damage to all creatures within the misfire radius.

Early Firearms

Table: Firearms
Early Firearms Cost Dmg (S) Dmg (M) Critical Range Misfire Capacity Weight1 Type2 Special
One-Handed Firearms
Buckler gun 750 gp
1d4
1d6
x4
10 ft.
1 (5 ft.)
2
6 lbs. B and P
Pepperbox 3,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
20 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
6
5 lbs. B and P
Pistol 1,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
20 ft.
1 (5 ft.)
1
4 lbs. B and P
Pistol, coat 750 gp
1d3
1d4
x3
10 ft.
1 (5 ft.)
1
1 lb. B and P
Pistol, dagger 740 gp
1d3
1d4
x3
10 ft.
1 (5 ft.)
1
1 lb. B and P
Pistol, double-barreled 1,750 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
20 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
2
5 lbs. B and P
Pistol, dragon 1,000 gp
1d4
1d6
x4
20 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
1
3 lbs. B and P scatter
Pistol, dragoon 1,500 gp 1d6 1d8 x3 30 ft. 1 (5 ft.) 3 5 lbs. B and P
Pistol, sword cane 775 gp
1d3
1d4
x3
10 ft.
1 (5 ft.)
1
1 lb. B and P
Two-Handed Firearms
Blunderbuss 2,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x2
special
1-2 (10 ft.)
1
8 lbs. B and P scatter
Culverin 4,000 gp
2d6
2d8
x4
30 ft.
1 (10 ft.)
1
40 lbs. B and P scatter
Double hackbut 4,000 gp
2d10
2d12
x4
50 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
2
18 lbs. B and P
Fire lance 25 gp
1d4
1d6
x4
10 ft.
1-4 (5 ft.)
1
4 lbs. P
Musket 1,500 gp
1d10
1d12
x4
40 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
1
9 lbs. B and P
Musket, axe 1,600 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
30 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
1
6 lbs. B and P
Musket, double-barreled 2,500 gp
1d10
1d12
x4
10 ft.
1-3 (5 ft.)
2
11 lbs. B and P
Musket, dragoon 2,000 gp 1d10 1d12 x3 60 ft. 1-2 (5 ft.) 3 12 lbs. B and P
Musket, warhammer 1,600 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
30 ft.
1-2 (5 ft.)
1
6 lbs. B and P
Advanced Firearms Cost
Dmg (S)
Dmg (M)
Critical
Range
Misfire
Capacity
Weight1 Type2 Special
One-Handed Firearms
Revolver 4,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x4
20 ft.
1
6
4 lbs. B and P
Two-Handed Firearms
Rifle 5,000 gp
1d8
1d10
x4
80 ft.
1
1
12 lbs. B and P
Rifle, pepperbox 7,000 gp
1d8
1d10
x4
80 ft.
1-2
4
15 lbs. B and P
Shotgun 5,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x2
20 ft.
1-2
1
12 lbs. B and P scatter
Shotgun, double-barreled 7,000 gp
1d6
1d8
x2
20 ft.
1-2
2
15 lbs. B and P scatter
1 Weight figures are for Medium weapons. A Small weapon weighs half as much, and a Large weapon weights twice as much.
2 A weapon with two types is either type (wielder's choice) if the entry specifies "or."

Early firearms are typically matchlock, wheellock, or flintlock weapons, and require more finesse and care to use than advanced firearms. Early firearms are muzzle-loaded, requiring a bullet and powder (or other special alchemical substances) to be shoved down the barrel before the weapon is fired. Early firearm ammunition can be loaded from a cartridge, but that cartridge is made of soft material (like paper or cloth) that is torn open so that the contents may be shoved down the barrel.

Blunderbuss

This weapon fires pellets or a bullet from its trumpet-shaped barrel, making it an effective fowling weapon or close-fighting personal defense weapon. The blunderbuss fires in a 15-foot cone when firing pellets, and has a 10-foot range increment when firing a bullet. A blunderbuss uses a bullet or pellets and a single dose of black powder or a single alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Buckler Gun

The front of this buckler is fitted with a small, double-barreled gun that can be shot while wearing the buckler. Unlike with a double-barreled pistol, you can only shoot one barrel at a time. You must remove the buckler to reload the gun. Each barrel of a buckler gun uses a bullet and 1 dose of black powder or single alchemical cartridge as ammunition. Because of its awkward construction, a buckler gun is always considered an off-handed weapon.

Culverin (Hand Bombard)

The culverin, also known as a hand bombard, consists of a simple smoothbore tube, sealed at one end except for a small hole used to ignite a gunpowder charge. A wooden stock partially encases the barrel, allowing the wielder to hold it under his arm with relative ease when carrying it. Firing a culverin without support (such as a wall, a window, or a stand) imparts a -4 penalty on the attack rolls, and the wielder is knocked prone. A culverin uses 4 doses of black powder and grapeshot. Note that these statistics simulate only the original, hand-held culverins—their larger descendants are considered cannons and are dealt with in the section on siege weapons.

Double Hackbut

This double-length rifle uses a pair of trunnions to mount its barrel into a swiveling mechanism fastened to a lightweight, two-wheeled carriage. It takes a full-round action to set up the carriage. The carriage has a hind leg, allowing the wielder to wheel the device about and immediately prop it for stability during combat. Unlike other two-handed firearms, you must fire the double hackbut while it is mounted, or else firing it imparts a -4 penalty on attack rolls and the recoil knocks the wielder prone. A Large or larger creature can fire a double hackbut one size smaller than it is without its mounting as a normal two-handed weapon and without the danger of being knocked prone, but takes the normal penalty for firing an inappropriately sized weapon.

Fire Lance

This primitive firearm is nothing more than a long tube that, when ignited, propels a short gout of flame and a javelin. Unlike other firearms, the fire lance is wildly imprecise, and targets AC rather than touch AC. A fire lance is always treated as having the broken condition for the purpose of determining the effects of a misfire. A fire lances uses a javelin and 2 doses of black powder as ammunition.

Musket

This long-barreled firearm has a much greater range than a pistol. A musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as its ammunition.

Musket, Axe

This musket features an axe blade at the end of its barrel. It can be used as both a musket and a battleaxe. It is considered a double weapon for purposes of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the axe are considered broken. An axe musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Musket, Double-Barreled

This musket has two parallel barrels; each barrel can be shot independently as a separate action, or both can be fired at once as the same attack. If both barrels are fired at once, they must both target the same creature or object, and the gun becomes wildly inaccurate, taking a -4 penalty on each shot. Each barrel of a doublebarreled musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Musket, Warhammer

This musket has a warhammer head at the end of its barrel, which allows it to be used as both a musket and a warhammer. It is considered a double weapon for purposes of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the warhammer are considered broken. A warhammer musket uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Pepperbox

This pistol has six barrels instead of one. The entire barrel housing can be quickly rotated by hand between shots (a free action requiring one free hand), allowing all six bullets to be fired before the weapon must be reloaded. Each barrel of a pepperbox uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or a single alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Pistol

The single-shot pistol is one of the most common firearms, although in most campaigns it is still rare enough to be an object of envy or curiosity to most. A pistol uses either a bullet and a singe dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Pistol, Coat

Less powerful than other firearms, this pistol is small enough to be easily concealed in a jacket or coat. You get a +2 bonus on Sleight of Hand checks made to conceal a coat pistol on your body. A coat pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Pistol, Dagger

A combination of a coat pistol and a blade, the dagger pistol can be used as both weapons. The awkwardness of the configuration means you do not gain the bonus on Sleight of Hand checks that either of those stand-alone weapons grants. The dagger pistol is considered a double weapon for the purpose of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. If this firearm gains the broken condition, both the firearm component and the dagger component are considered broken. A dagger pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition.

Pistol, Double-Barreled

This pistol has two parallel barrels; each barrel can be fired independently as a separate action, or both can be shot at once with the same action. If both barrels are shot at once, they must both target the same creature or object, and the pistol becomes wildly inaccurate, imparting a -4 penalty on each shot.

Pistol, Dragon

Like a miniature blunderbuss, the dragon pistol fires pellets or a bullet from its flared barrel. The dragon pistol fires in a 15-foot cone when firing pellets, and has a 10-foot range increment when firing a bullet. For ammunition, a dragon pistol uses a bullet or group of pellets and a single dose of black powder, or else a single alchemical cartridge (with either bullets or pellets) as ammunition.

Pistol, Sword Cane

A combination weapon, this gun mixes a coat pistol with a sword cane (Advanced Player's Guide 179). The sword cane pistol is considered a double weapon for the purpose of creating masterwork or magical versions of this weapon. The pistol attachment makes the nature of the weapon a little more difficult to hide. An observer must make a DC 15 Perception check to realize that an undrawn sword cane pistol is a weapon rather than a walking stick; the DC decreases to 5 if the observer is able to handle the weapon. A sword cane pistol uses either a bullet and a single dose of black powder or an alchemical cartridge as ammunition. The sword part of the weapon must be drawn in order to load the pistol part of the weapon.

Advanced Firearms

Advanced firearms are more reliable and accurate than early firearms. The ammunition of an advanced firearm takes the form of metal (usually brass) cartridges that are loaded into a chamber rather than shoved down the muzzle.

Revolver

A revolver is a pistol with a revolving cylinder containing six chambers. Each chamber can hold a metal cartridge, and when one cartridge is shot, the cylinder automatically rotates (no extra hand or action required), readying the next chamber for firing. A revolver uses metal cartridges as ammunition.

Rifle

This improvement on the musket, featuring grooved barrels, can fire farther and with more accuracy than early long-bore firearms. A rifle uses metal cartridges as ammunition.

Rifle, Pepperbox

The four barrels of this rifle are set into a turnable housing that can be quickly rotated by hand (a free action) between shots. A pepperbox rifle uses metal cartridges as ammunition.

Shotgun

This advanced version of the blunderbuss shoots in a 30-foot cone when firing pellets, and has a 20- foot range increment when firing a bullet (often called a slug). A shotgun uses metal cartridges (loaded with either a bullet or pellets) as ammunition.

Shotgun, Double-Barreled

This twin-barreled shotgun can be shot either one barrel at a time, or both together as one attack. A double shot that fires bullets is inaccurate, and takes a -4 penalty on both attacks. A double shot that fires bullets targets only a single creature and increases the damage of each barrel to 2d6 points (Small) or 2d8 points (Medium) for a total of 4d6 or 4d8 points. A double-barreled shotgun uses metal cartridges (loaded with either a bullet or pellets) as ammunition.

Firearm Ammunition and Adventuring Gear

Those who wield guns have a number of options when it comes to loading their weapons, and often need gunsmith's kits to provide proper care and upkeep for their firearms.
Table: Firearm Gear
Item Cost Weight
Alchemical cartridge, dragon's breath 40 gp
Alchemical cartridge, entangling shot 40 gp
Alchemical cartridge, flare 10 gp
Alchemical cartridge, paper (bullet or pellet) 12 gp
Alchemical cartridge, salt shot 12 gp
Black powder (dose) 10 gp
Black powder (keg) 1,000 gp 5 lbs.
Firearm bullet (1) 1 gp
Firearm bullet (30) 30 gp 1/2 lb.
Bullet, adamantine 61 gp
Firearm bullet, pitted 5 gp1
Firearm bullet, silver 25 gp
Gunsmith's kit 15 gp 2 lb.
Metal cartridge 15 gp
Pellets (handful) 1 gp
Pellets (30 handfuls) 30 gp 1/2 lb.
Powder horn 3 gp 1 lb.
1 Does not include the cost of poison compound.

Alchemical Cartridges

An alchemical cartridge is a prepared bundle of black powder with a bullet or pellets, sometimes with more exotic material added, which is then wrapped in paper or cloth and sealed with beeswax, lard, or tallow. There are many types of alchemical cartridges, the simplest being the paper cartridge—a simple mix of black powder and either pellets or a bullet. Alchemical cartridges make loading a firearm easier, reducing the time to load a firearm by one step (a full-round action becomes a standard action, a standard action becomes a move action, and a move action becomes a free action), but they tend to be unstable. The misfire value of a weapon firing an alchemical cartridge increases as listed in each entry.

Dragon's Breath Cartridge

This cartridge contains alchemical compounds that, when fired, produce a cone of fire instead of the normal attack of a one-handed or two-handed firearm with the scatter weapon quality. The nonmagical flame deals 2d6 points of fire damage to all targets within the cone of the scatter firearm (DC 15 Reflex save for half ).

These cartridges cannot be used in firearms that don't have the scatter weapon quality. Because this ammunition forces a saving throw instead of making an attack roll, the misfire rules are slightly different. If you roll a 1 with either of the damage dice, the firearm misfires.

Entangling Shot Cartridge

This mix of black powder and an alchemically treated resin strong enough to survive the shot can only be loaded into a blunderbuss, a dragon pistol, or other scatter weapon. It deals half damage to those hit by a cone attack made with this weapon, but any creature hit by the shot must succeed at a DC 15 Reflex saving throw or become entangled for 2d4 rounds. An entangling shot cartridge increases the firearm's misfire value by 2.

Flare Cartridge

When a flare cartridge hits its target, it only deals half damage, but the creature struck is blinded for 1 round (Fort DC 15 reduces this to dazzled), and creatures within a 20-foot burst are dazzled for 1 round (Fort DC 15 negates the effect). Flare cartridges are also useful for sending up signal flares. Firing a flare cartridge increases the firearm's misfire value by 2 unless it is fired from a blunderbuss or a dragon pistol, in which case doing so only increases the firearm's misfire value by 1. Flares can only be used to attack single creatures; they do not work as a shot for a cone scatter attack.

Paper Cartridge

This simple mix of black powder and either pellets or a bullet increases the misfire value by 1.

Salt Shot Cartridge

This mix of black powder and rock salt can only be loaded into a blunderbuss, a dragon pistol, or other scatter weapon. It deals nonlethal instead of lethal damage, and increases the misfire value by 1. You can only use it with a scatter weapon's cone attack.

Black Powder

Black powder is the key explosive component within a firearm that enables it to function, but in larger amounts this alchemical material can be quite destructive on its own as well. A single dose of black powder is enough to power a single shot from most one-handed and two-handed firearms, while 10 doses are required to fire a cannon. Black powder is often stored and transported in kegs (which hold 100 doses), but in this quantity the powder itself becomes dangerous. Exposure to fire, electricity, or a misfire explosion causes black powder to explode—a single keg that explodes in this manner deals 5d6 points of fire damage to anyone within a 20-foot burst (DC 15 Reflex half ). Storing black powder in a powder horn protects the powder from explosion.

Bullet

The ammunition of most one-handed and two-handed firearms, firearm bullets typically take the form of small balls of lead or some other metal.

Bullet, Adamantine

These expensive bullets are crafted from adamantine. They ignore hardness 20 or less when attacking objects.

Bullet, Pitted

This ammunition is pitted with a pattern of small pocks into which specially formulated poison compounds can be applied. A poison compound is a derivative of a standard toxin that is alchemically reduced to a solid form. These can be made from any standard injury or contact poison with a Craft (poison) check equal to the poison's DC + 4. The cost of purchasing an already prepared poison compound for the purpose of treating pitted bullets is equal to the poison's base cost + 20 gp. Once crafted, the compound can be pasted into the ammunition's pitted design and allowed to harden. Upon completion, the bullet can be fired from an appropriate firearm, releasing the poison compound into its target upon impact, but the poison's DC is reduced by 2. A pitted bullet cannot be used with an alchemical cartridge.

Bullet, Silver

This ammunition is specifically crafted from silver, and though nonmagical, it is particularly detrimental to lycanthropes, automatically confirming any critical threats against such creatures. A firearm that is shooting a silver bullet takes a -1 penalty on damage rolls (with a minimum of 1 point of damage).

Gunsmith's Kit

This small kit has all the tools a person needs to create, repair, and restore firearms, except for the necessary raw materials. Without such a kit, you cannot properly construct or provide upkeep for firearms.

Metal Cartridge

These sturdier versions of alchemical cartridges serve as the ammunition for advanced firearms. They can hold either bullets or pellets.

Pellets

A handful of pellets, along with a dose of black powder, is commonly used as ammunition for one-handed and two-handed firearms with the scatter weapon quality, though rocks or other small bits of hard material can be used in the pellets' place. Using anything other than pellets or alchemical cartridges when firing off a cone attack with a scatter weapon increases the weapon's misfire range by 1 (though this increase can be removed by switching back to standard ammunition).

Powder Horn

Typically crafted from animal horn, but increasingly crafted from metal in a wide variety of shapes, a powder horn can hold up to 10 doses of black powder. A powder horn protects black powder stored within in it from exposure to fire, electricity, firearm misfires, and water.

Modern Firearm Rules

Reign of Winter #5—Rasputin Must Die!
Modern firearms use the same rules as the advanced firearms, with the following differences. In addition, modern firearms include a new type of firearm—the automatic firearm.

Firearm Proficiency

In this era, guns are everywhere. Early firearms are seen as antiques, and advanced firearms are widespread. Firearms are considered simple weapons, and the gunslinger loses the gunsmith class feature and instead gains the gun training class feature at 1st level.

Capacity

Modern firearms typically have a much greater capacity than earlier firearms, and are frequently easier to load. When making a full-attack action with a single-shot or semi-automatic firearm, you may fire a firearm as many times in a round as you have attacks, up to the number of cartridges in the weapon (or more, if you can reload the weapon as a swift or free action while making a full-attack action).

Loading Modern Firearms

With the exception of antique weapons, almost all modern firearms are chamber-loaded, in that a plastic or brass cartridge is inserted directly into the chamber either by hand or by an ammunition-feeding mechanism such as a magazine or clip. Otherwise, loading follows the rules for advanced firearms. Other rules for loading a firearm depend on the firearm's overall capacity and replaceable magazine capability.

Internal Magazine Firearms

Some firearms, such as modern shotguns, bolt-actions, lever-actions, and older styles such as revolvers, retain their ammunition internally, either through a permanently attached tube-feed magazine, an internal holding chamber, or a revolving cylinder, along with more archaic designs. Unless otherwise stated, it is a move action to load up to 6 rounds of ammunition into a one-handed or two-handed modern firearm of this nature.

Magazines

Reloading devices such as clips, ammo belts, "stripper clips," speedloaders, and detachable magazines allow many modern firearms to be reloaded more quickly than their predecessors, with the entire magazine being replaced relatively swiftly. Such firearms require a swift action to load a one-handed or two-handed advanced firearm to the capacity of the replacement magazine.

Modern Russian Firearms

The firearms of early modern Earth are more reliable and accurate than early firearms, and produced for war on a much more massive scale than even the advanced firearms listed in Ultimate Combat. By this era in their development, firearms use brass cartridges loaded into a chamber rather than shoved down the muzzle. Firearms' capacity for these cartridges—particularly in long guns—has increased signif icantly, increasing the rate of fire. Another signif icant development is the invention of automatic fire, which allows belt-fed machine guns the capability to mow down targets with an amazing rain of fire, showering lead on opponents and creating a reliance on trench warfare. Though the firearms presented here were most commonly used by Russian soldiers of the time, these statistics can be used to simulate most other firearms of the same era. The costs listed for the various weapons and gear in this article represent the costs associated with a world where guns are everywhere, and thus cost 10% of the amount they would cost in a place where they are rarer.
Automatic Weapon Quality

A weapon with the automatic weapon quality fires a burst of bullets with a single pull of the trigger, attacking all creatures in a line. This line starts from any corner of your space and extends to the limit of the weapon's range or until it strikes a barrier it cannot penetrate. When an automatic weapon attacks all creatures in a line, it makes a separate attack roll against each creature in the line. Each creature in the line can only be attacked with one bullet from each burst. Each attack roll takes a -2 penalty to account for recoil, and its attack damage cannot be modified by precision damage or damage-increasing feats such as Vital Strike. Effects that grant concealment, such as fog or smoke, or the blur, invisibility, or mirror image spells, do not foil an automatic weapon's line attack. If any of the attack rolls threaten a critical hit, confirm the critical for that attack roll alone. An automatic weapon misfires only if all of the attack rolls made misfire. A single attack with an automatic weapon fires 10 bullets. An automatic weapon cannot fire single bullets that target one creature. When taking a full-attack action with an automatic weapon, you can fire as many bursts in a round as you have attacks.
Table: Modern Firearms
Modern FirearmsCostDmg (M)CriticalRangeMisfireCapacityWeight1Type2Special
One-Handed Firearms
Revolver, Nagant M1895 400 gp 1d8 4 80 ft. 1 7 4 lbs. B and P
Two-Handed Firearms
Flamethrower, Lawrence 1917 800 gp 4d6 6 20 lbs. Fire
Fuel tank 50 gp 40 lbs.
Light machine gun, Madsen 1,000 gp 2d6 4 100 ft. 1-2 20, 30, or 40 20 lbs. B and P Automatic
Machine gun, Maxim M1910 1,500 gp 2d8 4 120 ft. 1-2 250 140 lbs. B and P Automatic
Rifle, Mosin-Nagant M1891 500 gp 1d10 4 80 ft. 1 5 9 lbs. B and P
Siege Firearms
Firearm Cost Dmg Critical RangeMisfire Weight Type CrewAimLoad
Aasen mortar 500 gp 6d6 3 200 ft. (50 ft. min.) 1 50 lbs. B, P, and S 1 0 1
Hotchkiss 6 pounder 2,000 gp 8d6 3 300 ft. 1 Special B, P, and S 2 0 2
Explosives
Explosive Cost Dmg (M)Critical Range MisfireWeight TypeSpecial
Gas cylinder 300 gp See description 50 lbs. See description
M1914 grenade (concussion) 50 gp 3d6 2 20 ft. 1 lb. B See description
M1914 grenade (fragmentation) 75 gp 4d6 2 20 ft. 1 lb. B, P, and S See description
M1917 chemical grenade 100 gp See description 20 ft. 2 lbs. Acid See description

Firearms

Lawrence 1917 Flamethrower

One of the most infamous devices to evolve as a result of trench warfare, the flamethrower is still in its infancy in the early twentieth century. The British military produced the Lawrence 1917, which found its way into the hands of Russia's soldiers. The device consists of a cumbersome backpack of two tanks and a swivel-mounted, handheld projection unit, or "lance." When the device is aimed and a small hand lever depressed, a small gas burner ignites the oil, which is propelled forth in a blazing stream of intense flame. A flamethrower with full tanks is capable of unleashing up to 6 charges of ignited oil, to devastating effect.

When using a flamethrower, the wielder projects a 60-foot-long line of fire, attempting a separate attack roll against each creature within the line. Each attack roll takes a -2 penalty, and its attack damage cannot be modified by precision damage or damage-increasing feats such as Vital Strike. Effects that grant concealment, such as fog or smoke, or the blur, invisibility, or mirror image spells, do not foil this line attack. If any of the rolls threatens a critical hit, the wielder confirms the critical for that roll alone.

All affected creatures take 4d6 points of damage, and any creature hit by the flaming stream must also succeed at succeed at a DC 20 Reflex save or catch fire, taking an additional 2d6 points of damage each round until the flames are extinguished. A burning creature can attempt a new save as a full-round action, and dropping and rolling on the ground grants a +2 bonus on this save.

The device's tanks and backpacks are awkward, and the wielder takes a -4 armor check penalty when wearing the cumbersome device. In addition, the tanks have hardness 10 and 5 hit points, and if the tank is ruptured in the presence of any adjacent flame (including the device's own gas igniter), a mighty conflagration erupts, the wielder takes 6d6 points of fire damage, and all creatures within a 20-foot radius take 3d6 points of fire damage (Reflex DC 20 for half ). Any creatures who take damage must succeed at a DC 20 Reflex save or catch on fire.

Lawrence 1917 Flamethrower Fuel Tank

This pair of tanks—one filled with oil, and the other a propellant— provides enough flammable material to use a flamethrower six times.

Madsen Light Machine Gun

This imposing machine gun is light enough to be transported and wielded by a single user. Chambered for the Russian military in 7.6254mmR, this machine gun uses a top-loading, detachable 20-, 30-, or 40-round magazine. Like most machine guns, it is only capable of automatic fire.

Maxim M1910 Machine Gun

This heavy machine gun uses 7.6254mmR ammunition in 250-round belts. Although a single person can fire a Maxim, it typically has a two-person crew: the gunner, and a loader who assists with feeding the ammunition belt into the weapon. As a full-round action, the loader can use a special aid another action to grant the gunner a +2 bonus on his next attack roll. Because of its size and heavy weight, a Maxim is often either mounted on a wheeled chassis with a gun shield for trench defensive use, or on the back of a horse-drawn wagon called a tachanka (see page 67). Assuming a user can even lift the weapon, firing a Maxim M1910 machine gun that is not mounted imparts a -4 penalty on attack rolls and the recoil knocks the wielder prone. The Maxim M1910 is automatic-fire only. The armored shield provides cover when firing the weapon from the prone position.

Mosin-Nagant M1891 Rifle

This bolt-action rifle is the mainstay of Russian military forces. It is similar to the advanced firearms rifle with the following differences. It uses the same 7.6254mmR ammunition as the Madsen machine gun, and is fed from a 5-round internal, non-detachable magazine that is typically loaded with 5-round stripper clips (loading it is a move action). Without stripper clips, you may only reload up to 2 rounds of ammunition as a move action. Ammunition is typically sold in groups of 5 rounds. The rifle has a lug for the attachment of a socket bayonet, and can be equipped with a unique side-mount scope system (see below).

Nagant M1895 Revolver

This firearm is identical in operation to the advanced firearms revolver (Ultimate Combat 139), though it has a capacity of 7 instead of 6.

Siege Firearms Aasen Mortar

The Aasen mortar is an indirect-fire advanced siege firearm, consisting of a heavy steel barrel, a loading mechanism, and a folding bipod stand, and is used to launch explosives to penetrate enemy defensive lines. Aiming the mortar is part of the standard action required to fire it. Reloading the mortar is a full-round action, and the user loads a grenade-like projectile into the breech of the weapon's steel barrel, along with a blank rifle round that propels the bomb when triggered. The weapon uses indirect fire to lob bombs in slow-moving, high arcs, and the user targets a specific square. Rules for indirect-fire siege weapons are found on page 160 of Ultimate Combat. Mortars can also be fired as direct-fire siege engines. When used for direct fire, they take a -4 penalty on attack rolls and their range increment is halved, but they do not have a minimum range. After the point of impact is determined, the shell explodes and deals 6d6 points of bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing damage to all creatures in a 30-foot radius (Reflex DC 20 for half ). An Aasen mortar has hardness 10 and 35 hit points; it fires special, finned fragmentation bombs that cost 10 gp each and weigh 4 pounds each. These bombs usually arrive on the battlefront in wooden cases containing 6 mortars each.

Hotchkiss 6 pounder

The Hotchkiss 6 pounder gun is a shortened version of the Hotchkiss 6 pounder naval gun, designed for use in the sponsons of World War I-era tanks such as the Mark IV. The Hotchkiss 6 pounder is a direct-f ire advanced siege firearm that must be mounted in place on a vehicle to be used. It fires high explosive (HE) shells that deal 8d6 points of bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing damage in a 30-foot radius around the point of impact (Reflex DC 20 for half ). A Hotchkiss 6 pounder is a Medium weapon and has hardness 10 and 70 hit points. Hotchkiss HE shells cost 25 gp each and weigh 6 pounds each.

Explosives

The following explosives shook the battlef ields of the Great War. Making an attack with a grenade is similar to throwing a splash weapon (Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook 202). Specif ic details for the explosives are listed in their descriptions.

Gas Cylinder (Mustard Gas)

This large metal canister releases a cloud of toxic gas. It is usually placed on the ground and triggered so that the wind blows the gas toward enemy positions. Normally, multiple gas cylinders are placed in line and triggered together to cover a wider area of the battlefield. First, determine what direction the wind is blowing by rolling 1d4 (1 is north, 2 is east, 3 is south, and 4 is west). When triggered, a gas cylinder releases a cloud of mustard gas (see the sidebar on page 67) in a 15-foot cone. On the following 2 rounds, the cloud extends by an additional 15-foot square away from the canister, forming a 15-foot-wide, 45-foot-long cloud at the end of 3 rounds. The cloud moves with the wind, rolling along the surface of the ground, and disperses after 10 rounds. A strong wind (21+ mph) disperses the cloud in 4 rounds, and a severe wind (31+ mph) disperses it in 1 round.

M1914 Grenade (Concussion)

This time-delayed concussion grenade is a mainstay of trench warfare. The device appears to be little more than a metal cylinder tapering to a handle containing a spring-loaded lever. To detonate the device, you disengage the safety pin while depressing the handle's lever, which releases the firing pin when thrown. The device detonates at the beginning of your next turn, hopefully in the area you targeted. The device relies on a concussive blast to deal damage, and all creatures within a 20-foot radius take 3d6 points of bludgeoning damage (Reflex DC 15 for half ).

M1914 Grenade (Fragmentation)

Standard M1914 grenades can be fitted with an optional fragmentation sleeve. This sleeve converts the normal concussive blasts into a cloud of deadly shrapnel at the expense of a decreased damage radius. The device is armed and detonated in the same manner as a regular M1914 grenade, though the explosion radius is reduced to a 15-foot radius and the grenade instead deals 4d6 bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing damage (Reflex DC 15 for half ).

M1917 Chemical Grenade

The M1917 is a modified M1914 grenade specially modified and enlarged to release a cloud of toxic gas upon detonation. Resembling an overlarge metal can with a small lever and handle protruding from the bottom, the grenade is armed by pulling back on a metal firing pin held in place by the handle's depressed lever, which is released when thrown. At the beginning of your next turn, the grenade spews forth a cloud of mustard gas (see the sidebar on this page) in a 20-foot radius. The cloud disperses naturally after 4 rounds; a strong wind (21+ mph) disperses the cloud in 1 round.

Other Modern Military Gear

The following items were also used by the military units of this time period.

Item Cost Weight
Bayonet, socket 5 gp 1 lb.
Gas mask 25 gp 1 lb.
Gas mask canister 5 gp 1 lb.
Scope 25 gp 1 lb.
Tachanka 1,550 gp 750 lbs.

Bayonet, Socket

A socket bayonet fits onto a lug mounted on the barrel of some modern firearms. It has the same statistics as a bayonet, but a firearm fitted with a bayonet lug can be fired while the bayonet is in place, albeit with a -2 penalty on attack rolls. Each bayonet is designed for a specif ic model of firearm. The bayonets in this adventure are M1891 bayonets designed for use with the Russian Mosin- Nagant M1891 rifle.

Gas Mask

Russia's Zelinsky-Kummant gas masks are rubberized-cloth masks fitted with thick glass eyepieces and a charcoal-dust filter in a rectangular canister that screws in near the mouthpiece. A gas mask is worn tightly around the head and face, allowing the user to breathe in hazardous environments. A gas mask grants immunity to inhaled poisons and other nonmagical airborne attacks that require you to breathe them, and a +2 bonus on saving throws against magical cloud or magical gas attacks. Using a gas mask imposes a -2 penalty on hearing- and sight-based Perception checks. A gas mask's filter canister can be used for 8 hours before needing to be replaced.

Scope

Scopes are telescopic sights mounted on rifles to increase accuracy at range by magnifying the target. Scopes reduce the penalty for ranged attacks by 1 for each range increment.

Tachanka

This vehicle consists of an agile wagon with a machine gun mounted in the back. The driver sits at the front of the tachanka while the machine gun crew sits at the rear. Though only one horse is required to pull the tachanka, sometimes two or more were used. The price and weight listed in the table above include the wagon and the mounted machine gun but not the horse. This vehicle uses the same statistics as the light wagon found in Ultimate Combat, but with the addition of a Maxim M1910 machine gun.

Trench Warfare (Ex)

Starting at 3rd level, a trench fighter can select one specific type of firearm (such as a machine gun, revolver, or rifle). He gains a bonus equal to his Dexterity modifier on damage rolls when firing that type of firearm. Every 4 levels thereafter (7th, 11th, and 15th), the trench fighter picks up another type of firearm, gaining these bonuses for those types as well. Furthermore, when behind partial, normal, or improved cover, a trench fighter gains an additional +2 AC bonus from the cover. This ability replaces armor training 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Mustard Gas

Used in warfare during the Great War, mustard gas (along with other gases such as chlorine and phosgene) were responsible for the grisly and painful deaths of nearly 90,000 people, and permanently scarred more than a million.

Mustard gas is normally deployed via gas cylinders or chemical grenades. A cloud of mustard gas obscures vision like fog cloud and looks like a bank of fog, except that its vapors are yellowish-brown.

Living creatures within a cloud of mustard gas take 3d6 points of acid damage when first exposed to the gas and must succeed at a DC 18 Fortitude save each round or become nauseated and blinded for as long as they are in the cloud and for 1d4+1 rounds after leaving the cloud. Creatures that succeed at their save but remain in the cloud must continue to save each round on their turn. This is a poison effect. Because mustard gas is heavier than air, its vapors sink to the lowest level of the land, pouring down into holes and trenches. A gas mask (see below) completely protects the wearer from the nausea and blindness effects of mustard gas, though holding one's breath does not.